Happy Eid al Fitr 1435! Whichever day you are celebrating, may your Eid be joyous & full of Grace!
Happy Eid al Fitr 1435! Whichever day you are celebrating, may your Eid be joyous & full of Grace!
There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.
FATWA (RULING) ON FASTING IN RAMADAN IN THE UNITED KINGDOM DURING SUMMER
1. A number of people have asked me since last year about the excessive length of fasting during UK summer months.
2. This has included those new to the practice of fasting, elderly and middle-aged people, who wish to fast but simply cannot manage the very long days. Since last year, I’ve heard reports of such people in hospital, as well as of children falling seriously ill, due to fasting more than 18 hours per day.
3. The day length in London this year during Ramadan is almost 17 hours *sunrise-sunset*. Since there is no agreed beginning of dawn, the dawn-sunset timings vary from 19 to 20.5 hours.
4. The timings increase as we go further north, especially in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
a) E.g. I visited Dublin in June 2000: sunset prayers at the Dublin Islamic Centre (Clonskeagh Mosque) were held at 10.30pm, followed by night prayers at 12am and dawn prayers at 2am. Assuming dawn at 1am, this gives a 21.5-hour dawn-sunset fast.
b) On the other hand, I visited Stockholm in December 1999: sunrise was at 10.30am and sunset at 3.30pm. In winter there, the dawn-sunset fast is barely 6-7 hours, whereas it is 9-10 hours in the southern UK.
5. To reduce the fasting length, note that some of the Sahaba (Prophet’s Companions), including Hudhayfa bin al-Yaman, and Successors ate until sunrise or just before. Tabari and Ibn Kathir mention numerous narrations proving this under Qur’an 2:187, although both of them reject the practice based on a literalist reading of the verse (they lived in moderate climes). Ibn Hazm also approves the practice in his Al-Muhalla.
6. The jurists have discussed this matter for high latitudes. As Sheikh Muhammad Abduh, Grand Mufti of Egypt, mentions in Tafsir al-Manar, classically they mentioned two possibilities to follow more moderate timings:
a) follow timings of the lands of revelation, viz. Mecca and Medina (Hijaz) – throughout the year, the dawn-sunset fast here is 12-15 hours
b) follow timings of the nearest “moderate land”
Abduh adds, “Both of these are valid, since it is a matter of judgment (ijtihad), and there is no unequivocal text (nass) about it.”
7. Note that following timings of the nearest “moderate land” is similar to following timings of the nearest “moderate time” in your own land, e.g. spring or autumn timings, when the days and nights are approximately of equal length.
8. Abduh is not alone in the above fatwa: he is quoting from centuries of earlier jurists. After him, his fatwa has been echoed by Muhammad Hamidullah, Mustafa Zarqa, Sayyid Tantawi, Jad al-Haqq, and Ali Gomaa amongst others. Texts and discussions of these fatwas may be found on the internet, e.g. see: http://alrukn.com/long-fasts-fiqh/
9. The above fatwa implies partially decoupling fasting from dawn/sunset.
10. The spirit of fasting is clearly “from morning until evening” and to focus on its inner aspects, without hair-splitting about external matters.
11. The famous Qur’anic passage about fasting 2:183-7 begins and ends with taqwa (God-consciousness), and includes the memorable wisdom, “God wishes ease for you, not hardship … that you complete the course, magnify God for guiding you, and that you give thanks.”
This verse is in fact the basis of the numerous hadiths about making matters in religion relatively easy and not difficult, of the classical Hanafi principle of istihsan (attaining goodness, even if opposed to analogical reasoning) along with 39:17-18, cf. the first page of Kitab al-Istihsan in Al-Mabsut of al-Sarakhsi, and of contemporary jurists’ emphasis on taysir (easing matters), part of the Prophetic spirit and one of the principles of jurisprudence.
12. In exceptional circumstances, the Prophet (peace be upon him) understood that “morning” and “evening” were relative to people’s habits and culture.
Hadith: Safwan bin Mu’attal, who as a virgin was caught up with Aisha, Mother of the Believers, in the scandalous rumours that rocked Medina after the Mustaliq expedition, eventually got married. His wife once came to the Prophet and complained about her husband on three counts. (The Prophet defended and made excuses for him regarding all three matters.) One of these was that “he does not get up for the dawn prayer, and only offers it after sunrise when he rises.” When the Prophet asked him about this, he replied that his people or tribe customarily rose after sunrise, and not at the crack of dawn. The Prophet’s wise answer was, “In that case, pray when you wake up.” (Fa idha-stayqazta fa salli, a sound hadith in the Sunan, rated as authentic by Albani in his evaluation of the hadiths of Mishkat al-Masabih.)
Thus, for example, those who work night-shifts, working throughout the night and sleeping during the day, should fast during the night. This is because night has become day for them and vice-versa. The Qur’an that encourages fasting during the day also states that night is for sleep whilst the day is for work (e.g. 78:9-11).
13. An Azhari sheikh recently suggested to me that 12 hours’ fasting was sufficient, based on the average length of a day over a whole year: this is true of the sunrise-sunset day, for every place on earth. If we use dawn-sunset instead, we get 13-14 hours’ fasting. Note that this approach implies keeping a similar-length fast irrespective of the season in which Ramadan falls: in the winter, fasting would be much longer than the dawn-sunset timing, and some of us do follow that approach. This has an element of “continuous fasting” (sawm al-wisal, where fasting continues by night) about it: the Prophet practiced this regularly for several days at a time, but disallowed it for his followers, unless they were sure they could manage it.
14. I am reliably informed that Muslims in Norway use a 14-hour fasting timetable in the summer.
15. A case may be made for 16-hour fasts, based on Imam Ghazzali’s view that the maximum a person should sleep at night is a third of the day and night, i.e. 8 hours.
16. Insisting that those unable to complete long fasts should make them up at another time is practically equivalent to moving Ramadan out of the summer and into the seasons of autumn, winter or spring.
CONCLUSION / FATWA
All Praise belongs to God. Peace and Blessings be upon the Messengers of God.
1. Those who wish to follow dawn-sunset timings of 18-21 hour fasts and can do so safely, are free to do so.
2. Those who find this genuinely unbearable, or are convinced of the non-literalist approach of “morning to evening” rather than the literalist “dawn to sunset”, may wish to fast for 12 or preferably 14-16 hours, beginning from dawn, sunrise or even their usual morning meal (breakfast!). Such moderate timings are based on the fatwas of jurists over many centuries for high latitudes.
3. Whatever length a person fasts, they should not feel superior to others. The spirit of Ramadan and fasting includes God-consciousness, patience, perseverance, gratitude, prayer, worship, charity, generosity, humility, self-purification, self-development, helping others, mercy, compassion, forgiveness, lowering the gaze (of the eyes from lustful glances and of the heart from other than God) and the remembrance and love of God.
May Allah, the One and Unique having Infinite Beautiful Names, bless all of humanity during this month, and shower upon us its internal and external grace.
Sheikh Dr. Usama Hasan (London, UK)
1st Ramadan 1435 / 29th June 2014 (updated: 4th Ramadan / 2ndJuly)
Reliable astronomical data from HM Nautical Almanac Office and Crescentwatch.org indicates the crescent moon is likely to be visible in the Americas, Africa and parts of Australia on Saturday night, 28th June, and in all regions on Sunday night, 29th June.
Hence, the first day of fasting in the Americas and Africa should be on Sunday, 29th June, while in the United Kingdom, most of Europe and Asia, the first day of fasting will be Monday, 30th June.
By Paul Salahuddin Armstrong
“We have four seasons in our lives. First, springtime comes, second, summertime; the third season, autumn; the fourth one, winter. So many people may go during springtime, at the beginning or in the middle or the end. Some people come to summertime, also; at the beginning, the middle, or the end of summer, they may go. Some people come to autumn; yes.
Some people go away at the beginning or middle or end of autumn. Then, a very few people come to wintertime. In wintertime, some people are going at the beginning, some people are going in the middle, but most must go at the end of wintertime. This is our life.”
~ Mawlana Shaykh Nazim, Liberating the Soul: Volume 1.
Mawlana Shaykh Nazim Adil al-Haqqani, a man never promoted by the media, a man not ordinarily famous, not a celebrity in the usual sense, a Muslim, scholar, pious man; a man who nevertheless touched the hearts of millions of people around the world. Mawlana, as he is affectionately known to many of his murids (students), will be sorely missed… At any given time, there are countless Awliya Allah (Friends of God) living in different countries around the world. Many known only to Allah, others known to their murids, a few touch everyone who has eyes to see the Spirit of Divine Love flowing through them; Mawlana Shaykh is of the latter kind.
Nearly a decade and half have elapsed since my heart was guided to make bayah to Naqshbandi murshid (spiritual teacher), Shaykh Sufi Mohammed Abdullah Khan of Ghamkol Sharif. The work and community of Mawlana Shaykh Nazim eased my spiritual journey, helping me discover the authentic spirit of Islam, removing the ideological hurdles to me discovering and making bayah to Shaykh Sufi Abdullah. Hence, Mawlana Shaykh Nazim occupies a special place in my heart, and the Naqshbandi-Haqqani community very much part of my life. One aspect of Shaykh Nazim that really demonstrates his greatness as a Human Being, is how much people like myself feel the loss at his passing, even though he wasn’t my personal murshid and unfortunately, I never had the opportunity to meet him in person…
“When you are respecting, then divine love runs through hearts and you should be a source of divine love, and everyone should also be a channel of divine love for each other.”
~ Mawlana Shaykh Nazim, Liberating the Soul: Volume 2.
Even as a young man, shortly after leaving university, Shaykh Nazim travelled to Damascus to seek out the man who would become his murshid, Shaykh Abdullah al-Faiz ad-Daghestani. Mawlana Shaykh Nazim would go on to spend the rest of his life in the service of Allah SWT, through the guidance of Shaykh Abdullah ad-Daghestani. Continue reading →
Contrary to what some think and even in some cases (shockingly) preach, Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, condemned the beating of women.
“How does anyone of you beat his wife as he beats the stallion camel and then he may embrace (sleep with) her?”
~ Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. (Bukhari 8.68)
As Muslims, we must stand united on this issue in solidarity with all decent brothers and sisters in our Human Family.
Violence against women is wrong, and must be stopped!